Thursday, 5 July 2012

Scripting Languages

A type of language used to write scripts is called scripting language. Scripting languages are used with interpreters. It means that a program develope with a scripting language must be run in the environment that contains the interpreter of scripting language. It cannot be executed as a stand-alone application. Scripting language is easier to learn.
Different scripting languages are as follows:

1. Java
Java is a popular object-oriented programming language. It was developed by Sun Microsystem. It is used to write stand-alone applications, applets and servlets. Java source code is compiled into bytecode instread of object code. Bytecode cannot be executed by operating system. it is executed by Java interpreter.
The code used to create Java application is. called JavaBeans or Beans. it is platform indepedent and can run on different types of computers or operating systems.

2. JavaScript
JavaScript is an interpreted language that is used to add dynamic contents in Web pages. It is used to include messages, scrolling text, animations, menus, pop-up windows etc. JavaScript is directly embedded in HTML.
JavaScript was developed by Sun Microsystems and Netscape Communicator. It is an open language. It can be used without purchasing. Netscape supports JavaScript and Internet Explorer supports JScript. JScript is a subset of JavaScript.

3. VBScript
VBScript is an interpreted language that is used to add dynamic contents in Web
pages. It is used to include messages, scrolling text, animations, menus, pop-up windows etc. VBScript is directly embedded in HTML.

PERL stands for Practical Extraction and Report Language. It was developed by Larry Wall at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. it is a powerful language for writing scripts.

5. DHTML:-
DHTML stands for Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language. It is used to add dynamic contents and interactivity in web pages. It is used to apply colors and add animations etc. It uses documents object model (DOM), style sheets and scripting languages.
• Document Object Model: It defines the contents of web page as objects. It considers fonts, graphics nd tables as objects.
Scripting Languages.
• Style Sheet: Style sheet contains the characteristics of a document. Cascading style
sheet contains the formatting details of each object in the document. Different style
sheets can be used for applying different formatting to different objects.
• Scripting Language: Scripting language is used to manipulate the objects in the web page. A script can move, display, or change the appearance of an object as different events occur.

6. XML:-
XML stands for Extensible Markup Language. It allows developers to create
customized tags. It is used to send complete record from server to the client that reduces
network traffic. It can also be used to create a link that points to multiple websites. It uses
Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) as its style sheet specification.

XHTML stands for extensible Hypertext Markup Language. It combines the
formatting strengths of HTML 4.0 and the data structure and extensibility strengths of XML.
It uses the tags and attributes of HTML along with the sy of XML. The first version of
XHTML 1.0 was released in 2000. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) sets the
standards for XHTML and other internet languages.

WML stands for Wireless Markup Language. Itis used to design web pages for
microbrowsers. It is mostly used for handheld computers, cellular telephones and pagers. It uses Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) as astandard. WAP defines how wireless devices communicate with the Web.

9. The .NET Platform:-
.NET Platform is created by Microsoft. It is used to develop applications with XML
Web services. These services are used to share data between Web applications created in any programming language and any operating system. It provides easier way of communication.
.NET applicalions run under any web browser and any type of .NET-compliant smart
client. A computer or a device that can accesses XML Web services is called .NET-compliant
smart client. Different .NET-compliant smart clients are personal cothputers, notebooks,
handheld computers, web-enabled telephones, Tablet PC and XbOXTM.
Tablet PC is a mobile computer that uses Windows XP operating system. It supports
pen input and provides voice recognition facility. XboxTM is video game console. It provides
the facility to update games regularly. It also allows interacting with other games via
broadband Internet connection.
Visual Studio .NET (VS.NET) is a set of tools to. develop applications for .NET platform. It provtdes editors for cascading style sheets, XML and HTML. It supports more
than 25 programming languages. Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET), Visual C++®.NET andVisual C#Th .NET are three popular languages.

10. Web Page Authoring Software .
Web page authoring software is used to develop web pages with graphical images,
video, audio, animation etc. It is also called HTML editor. It also generates HTML tags as the
user designs web pages. HTML tags can be customized to modify the look of web page.
Popular web page authoring software are Macromedia Dreamweaver, Microsoft FrontPage, Adobe GoLive and Macromedia Flash.