Wednesday, 23 May 2012

Local Area Network Protocols

Network Protocol:-

Network Protocol or communication protocol is a set of rules for exchanging information between computers on a network.
Types of LAN Protocols:-
Different LAN protocols are as follows:

1. Ethernet

Ethernet is the most commonly used LAN protocol. It uses a high-speed network cable and bus topology. It is inexpensive and easy to install and. manage. All computers inEthemet tIse same cable to send and receive data. They must follpw same rules for communication. If- two or more computers transmit data at same time, the messages can be lost. A computer checks if the cable is in use before transmitting data. The computer waits if the cable is being used. It starts transmitting data when the cable is free. This process is also called CSMA/C$ (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection).

2. Token Ring

Token ring is also a LAN technology. It allows network devices to access the network by passmg a special signal called token Token is like a ticket A device can transmit data over the network only if it has a token. Only one token is available in one netwOrk is why no collision can occur. But the data transmission rate is slow. When a computer wants to send a message, it:
1. Gets the token
2. Puts the data in the token
3. Adds the address of receiving computer
Token ring is based on ring topology but can also be used in star topology. The token passes from computer to computer. The computer whose address matches with the address stored in the token gets the data. It then returns the message to the sending computer to indicate that the data has been received.

3. ARCnet

ARCnet stands for Attached Resource Computer Network. It is a LAN protocol. It was introduced in 1977. It uses twisted-pair, coaxial cable and fiber-optic media. ARCnet uses star, bus or combination of these topologies.
The original ARCnet protocol was very slow. It.supported transmission rates of 2.5 Mbps. It became popular because it was inexpensive and reliable. It isalso easy to setup and expand. Fast ARCnet increased the transmission rate to 100 Mbitspersecond.

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