Thursday, 30 August 2012

Top 5 Ways To create Back-links for Your Blog

In Today's World Meaning of SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is no more than Link-Building or Creating Quality Back-links.And it is a better way of increasing Page Rank and alexa rank and visits.In today world if you have high Quality content with high keywords but you do not pay heed to the SEO of your blog then I am sorry to say you that here is no fruit for your hard work from Google and other search engines and that means that you will have no traffic and respectively no Page-Rank and Repute in the cyber world.
That is not all if you are starting a new blog and also building quality Back-links and doing SEO for your blog then this can give your blog an early traffic boost and makes you happy as it makes me happy.
Today I am here to explain you the Methods to "Create Quality Back-links".

  1. Exchanging Links to other Blogs
  2. Social Media Sites
  3. Joining Forums
  4. Leaving Comments On Other sites
  5. Guest Posting

Exchanging Links to other sites:

This is the a great way to have Quality Back-links.In this way you have to find some sites of your Niche with High Page Rank like  "PR 4" or "PR 5" and ask the Admin Politely to exchange back-links with your blog if he is not willing you can offer him some money in exchange This will help you a lot in SEO and that Backlink can send you a Huge amount of Traffic more than your imagination.

Social Media Sites:

This is the Easiest way of building Quality back-links and if You have larger social media Community then it can send you tons of traffic more then your thinking. 
There are many top social media websites like Facebook,Twitter and the Rapidly growing Site Google+ which is owned by the King of cyber world Google.
In these social sites you have to recognize your market and to recognize your clients and then you have to share your posts frequently and have to build a community .
But remember that do not create spam just share your post to your clients and the people who will like it. Once again don't spread spam or Either you will be Blocked.

Joining forums:

Joining Forums to Submit your site is worthy of spending time on forum activities.There are about hundred  of forums but remember and don't ever forget that you have to join the forum of your niche and having at least a Page Rank of 4,If you do so then you can get huge traffic also from there.Remember that you will not be there to spread spam,you have to promote your blog.Make friends and tell them about your Hard Work.
There are some most popular forums like "Bloggers.com" or "Technorati".
I have also joined these forums and well satisfied from these forums because they divert a large amount of traffic towards your blog.

Leaving Comments on other Sites:

This is also a great way of creating back-links.You just have to find the blogs or sites of your niche which are of High Page Rank and comment on their posts.There are many methods of leaving Back-links in comments, like leaving your blog address in your signature or in these days there is a very popular gadgets like "comment luv" they allow you to leave a link to your latest post and show that post exactly below your comment allowing visitors to click on those links and reach to your post directly and there are thousands of blogs with "comment luv" enabled commenting system.
There are some points that you Should follow while commenting on other's blogs/sites.
  •  Your are not there to just give a link to your post or just to give formal comments like "nice post" or "amazing post" but you should comment about the post and that can be done after reading the post properly.
  • you should an attractive comment to attract the visitors to you and they click on your link and reach to your blog. So leave a very attractive comment that highly points out the main points of that post.
  • You should only comment the sites or blogs that relates to your blog niche.

Guest Posting:

Now-a-days Guest Posting is very Popular in the blogging world.If you want to leave one or more 
back-links on other blogs you can offer the admin of that blog with a guest post having two to three links pointing towards your blog's post.Often the owner of the blogs accept the offer but you have to provide a sample of your previous work so you basically have to give them a link of your previous blog post or a previous Guest post.If they approve the Quality of your work they will surely allow you to submit them your post by an E-mail or any other mean.


Last Words:

 You should not Spread Spam in any forum or blog because your blog can be blocked by the Search Engines and you have to start your work from the Beginning.Feel free to leave your suggestions for my blog.

Monday, 27 August 2012

Ways To Hack Facebook Passwords

If you are looking for ways of Hacking Facebook Passwords Then You are at the Right Place.

There are about more then one billion searches weekly on Google Wandering for methods to hack Facebook Passwords.And there are millions and millions of videos on YouTube on "How to hack Facebook Passwords.
But almost nobody knows the exact way to hack Facebook account password.
Today i am going to tell you some of the ways that  "hackers use to hack Facebook passwords". And by knowing these methods you can easily secure your Facebook account from hacking.

There are four main tricks for Hacking.

  1. Facebook phishing.
  2. Social Engineering.
  3. Primary E-mail address Hacking.
  4. Key Logging.

Facebook Phishing:


  • I have chosen this way first because this is Most Popular way of hacking Facebook passwords and according to the thousands of surveys taken in the world doesn't even knows that his/her password is hacked.And even also it is "most favorite method of hackers".And not only Facebook but all other E-mail account Passwords can be hacked by this little trick.

By using this method the hacker send a Fake Facebook Login page to the user which actually looks Absolutely  like an Original Facebook Login Page.
When the user enters his/her Username and Password to the given page Then Those details are taken to the the hacker by using which he can do every thing to that person's account.
You can become harmless by carefully reading the address of the login page which is sent to u suddenly between using Facebook and not entering Your Facebook Password in any unknown form.

Social Engineering:

  • This is also a very Effective way of hacking into someone's account,Especially if he is one of your Friends or  Relatives.And you have to be very careful while using this way.
This way Actually works Logically.We have to do is to just collect information of your victim for security questions for logging into the account.This should be very easy but also can be very tricky or you can say that complicated because you have to collect his very sensitive information.
you can prevent your account by saying a big "NO" when someone asks you that kinda question.
Or placing a very difficult question and answer in Facebook's Account setting.

Primary E-mail address Hacking:

  • Just think if a Facebook hacker somehow gets to your Primary E-mail address then how easily he can get control of your Facebook account? Usually what the Hackers do is to Hack the Primary E-mail address of the Facebook user and then use trick of Forgotten Password and Facebook sends the password to the Primary    E-mail address and Hacker becomes Happy and The User will Be very sad.
Now you can prevent your account to be hacked by this way by using your friend's E-mail address as your Recovery E-mail address and hide your primary E-mail address from your profile information of Facebook From Facebook's Account Setting.

Key Logging:


  •  Key logging is very hard method Among all of these Methods. Because for using this method  we have to place a key logging software to the Victim's computer,which in my opinion is actually very difficult.
This software actually records all the key strokes of the key board and anyone can hack Facebook account easily.There are hundreds of key logging software available in the market,But i will not name any one of them because i am here to tell my readers the methods to avoid being hacked.


Note: This post is Just For informative purpose.I will not be Responsible of any Illegal action of my readers.

Saturday, 25 August 2012

Nikon Coolpix S800c released


WiFi connectivity is an easy way of sharing uploading and browsing
photographs and videos on the social networks.
Users will also be able of playing games and downloading apps and surf the
internet through Coolpix S800c.
This device runs on Android GingerBread and also having Built-in WiFi in it.


FEATURES:

  • Cool pix comes with built-in Google+,Google maps,Gmail and YouTube.
  • This camera device also contains an app named  "Upload to Smart Device" which lets the user to transfer the photographs and Videos to other Devices over WiFi that may either run on Android or iOS.
  • This Killer device comes with 10x Optical Zoom VR Image Stabilization 25-250 mm Nikkor lens.
  • Nikon S800c also have 3.5 inch wide screen OLED Touch Display Monitor.
  • Since This is not a phone thus It does not support 2G or 3G,It will use device for connectivity to your friends if they or u are in WIFI range.
  • The camera Device is also capable of taking  about 140 photos at a single with the help of 1050 mAh battery.
  • It also have some simple and cool Image Effects and An Image Editor in it.
  • This camera is Capable of storing 1.7 GB storage capacity for Pics and and 680 MB for apps and is also expandable.
Pre-registration for this Camera has been started ,However it will be available in the market in September 2012 at the price of $350 or around 32000 PKR.

Thursday, 5 July 2012

What is WEB 3.0


WEB 3.0
Web  3.0 is the next generation of the Web. It is believed to make search tasks faster and easier by acting as as personal assistant. The browser may remember the interest of the user while browsing. The user can be less specific in the searches.

Blogging Tips

What is XML


     XML stands for Extensible Markup Language. It means that the user can define his own set of tags. It Makes XML more flexible than HTML. XML tags represent the logical structure of data and can be interpreted and used in different ways by different applications.

     XML inherits the features of SGML and combines the features of HtML with it.The major framework is taken from SGML.

   XML is a Metá language to describe other languages. It can used to create a markup language for a specific purpose. XML resembles and complements HTML. XML describes data, such as student name, marks and address. HTML defines the tags that describe the display of data such as with bulleted list or table. XML allows the developers, to define an Unlimited set of tags thus bringing great flexibility to the users.

What is web 2.0


Web 2.0:

Web 2.0 is a set of tethniques that provide an upgiaded presentation and usefulness for World Wide Web. It provides, more opportunities for individuals to collaborate with one another and create new•content using applications like blogs, wikis and podcasts.

Blogs and Vlogs:
Blog stands for Web log. It is a Web site that contains, a writers reflections and comments. Many free sites ptovide. the facility to set up a blog such as www.blogspot.com. Vlog stands for vidèo log. It is a set of personal videos. Many vlogs are posted on YouTube.

Wiki:
A wiki is an online information source that, can be edited, deleted or modified by anyone. A wiki may contains errors and it should not be used as a primary research source. The most popular wiki is Wikipedia.

Podcasts and Vodcasts:
A podcast is a combination of the words iPod and broadcast, It is a program in digital format available for download and replay. Most podcasts are available for free.itunes is a popUlar source. A User can create podcast with software and a microphone.
vodcastfor video podcast. It refers to online delivery of video clip on demand.
Some Popular Video-sharing Web sites are as follows:
Youtube
itunes


Social networking:
Social networking is a group of individuals creating a community. It is used to share pictures and common interests. Some examples of social networking sites are as follows:

 Linked in
 Ning

Tagging:
A tag is a user-generated word o phrase that helps in organizing Web content. Web developers refer to these tags as metatags. The tags helps in locating a Web page or blog when people search.
Collaboration Tools:
Collaboration tools assist people work online as team, Google docs allows Web-based collaboration on Word documents, spreadsheets and presentations.

What is HTML


HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It was deve1oped in early 1990s. It is a formatting language used to develop web pages. Hypertext means That   HTML marks certain words in the document as links to other parts of the same document or other document. When the user clicks on a link browser stars displaying the document attached to that link.
     HTML is not a programming language.It is used to define text,Graphics,audio and video in web pages.It uses tags or markups to specify how the content of web pages will be displayed. HTML code can be written in any text editor like Notepad.
     HTML was developed a few years ago as a subset of SGML. SGML stands, for
Structured Generalized Mark-upS Language It also describes formatting and hypertext links, and different compóneñts of a document. It is. basically an application-oriented document format. SGML is not ideal for transmission across the Internet to different types of computers and browser applications.
     HTML is simpler than SGML. It was designed for use over the Internet in the form of Web pages. HTML is more suited for this purpose. It is used tO design and create pages for different types of users of the Web.

Scripting Languages


A type of language used to write scripts is called scripting language. Scripting languages are used with interpreters. It means that a program develope with a scripting language must be run in the environment that contains the interpreter of scripting language. It cannot be executed as a stand-alone application. Scripting language is easier to learn.
Different scripting languages are as follows:

1. Java
Java is a popular object-oriented programming language. It was developed by Sun Microsystem. It is used to write stand-alone applications, applets and servlets. Java source code is compiled into bytecode instread of object code. Bytecode cannot be executed by operating system. it is executed by Java interpreter.
The code used to create Java application is. called JavaBeans or Beans. it is platform indepedent and can run on different types of computers or operating systems.

2. JavaScript
JavaScript is an interpreted language that is used to add dynamic contents in Web pages. It is used to include messages, scrolling text, animations, menus, pop-up windows etc. JavaScript is directly embedded in HTML.
JavaScript was developed by Sun Microsystems and Netscape Communicator. It is an open language. It can be used without purchasing. Netscape supports JavaScript and Internet Explorer supports JScript. JScript is a subset of JavaScript.

3. VBScript
VBScript is an interpreted language that is used to add dynamic contents in Web
pages. It is used to include messages, scrolling text, animations, menus, pop-up windows etc. VBScript is directly embedded in HTML.

4.PERL
PERL stands for Practical Extraction and Report Language. It was developed by Larry Wall at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. it is a powerful language for writing scripts.

5. DHTML:-
DHTML stands for Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language. It is used to add dynamic contents and interactivity in web pages. It is used to apply colors and add animations etc. It uses documents object model (DOM), style sheets and scripting languages.
• Document Object Model: It defines the contents of web page as objects. It considers fonts, graphics nd tables as objects.
Scripting Languages.
• Style Sheet: Style sheet contains the characteristics of a document. Cascading style
sheet contains the formatting details of each object in the document. Different style
sheets can be used for applying different formatting to different objects.
• Scripting Language: Scripting language is used to manipulate the objects in the web page. A script can move, display, or change the appearance of an object as different events occur.

6. XML:-
XML stands for Extensible Markup Language. It allows developers to create
customized tags. It is used to send complete record from server to the client that reduces
network traffic. It can also be used to create a link that points to multiple websites. It uses
Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) as its style sheet specification.

7.XTHML:-
XHTML stands for extensible Hypertext Markup Language. It combines the
formatting strengths of HTML 4.0 and the data structure and extensibility strengths of XML.
It uses the tags and attributes of HTML along with the sy of XML. The first version of
XHTML 1.0 was released in 2000. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) sets the
standards for XHTML and other internet languages.

8.WML:-
WML stands for Wireless Markup Language. Itis used to design web pages for
microbrowsers. It is mostly used for handheld computers, cellular telephones and pagers. It uses Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) as astandard. WAP defines how wireless devices communicate with the Web.

9. The .NET Platform:-
.NET Platform is created by Microsoft. It is used to develop applications with XML
Web services. These services are used to share data between Web applications created in any programming language and any operating system. It provides easier way of communication.
.NET applicalions run under any web browser and any type of .NET-compliant smart
client. A computer or a device that can accesses XML Web services is called .NET-compliant
smart client. Different .NET-compliant smart clients are personal cothputers, notebooks,
handheld computers, web-enabled telephones, Tablet PC and XbOXTM.
Tablet PC is a mobile computer that uses Windows XP operating system. It supports
pen input and provides voice recognition facility. XboxTM is video game console. It provides
the facility to update games regularly. It also allows interacting with other games via
broadband Internet connection.
Visual Studio .NET (VS.NET) is a set of tools to. develop applications for .NET platform. It provtdes editors for cascading style sheets, XML and HTML. It supports more
than 25 programming languages. Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET), Visual C++®.NET andVisual C#Th .NET are three popular languages.

10. Web Page Authoring Software .
Web page authoring software is used to develop web pages with graphical images,
video, audio, animation etc. It is also called HTML editor. It also generates HTML tags as the
user designs web pages. HTML tags can be customized to modify the look of web page.
Popular web page authoring software are Macromedia Dreamweaver, Microsoft FrontPage, Adobe GoLive and Macromedia Flash.

Webpage program Development


Web Page Program Development
A collection of connected documents on. the Internet is called World Wide Web. Each document is called a web page. It may consist of text, graphics, audio or video etc. The developer of web pages are called web page authors.
Different techniques used to develop web pages are as follows:

1. HTML
HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. It is a formatting language used to
develop web pages. Web pages can be viewed in a web browser. Internet Explorer and
Netscape Navigator are two most popular web browsers.
HTML is not a programming language. It is used to define text, graphks, audio and
video in web pages. It uses tags or markups to specify how the contents of web page will be
displayed. HTML code can be written in any text editor like Notepad.

2. Scripts
Script is an interpreted program that runs on the client computer. It is written in a
scripting language. An interpreted language used to write scripts is called scripting language.

3. Applet
Applet is a sz Java program that can be embedded in HTML. It runs faster than
script because it is compiled. Applet is different from. Java applications. It cannot access
certain resources on the local computer such as files and serial devices like modems, printers,
etc. It is also prohibited from communicating with most other computers across a network.
Normally, an applet can only connçct to the computer from which the applet was sent.

4. Servlet
An applet that runs on a• web server is called serviet. It responds to requests from
clients. Servlets extend a Web server by generating content dynamically.

5. ActiveX Controls
ActiveX is a set of object-oriented technologies that allow components on a netwok to
communicate with one another. ActiveX control runs on client computer instead of server,
I Advantages of using Scripts, Applets, Servlets & ActiveX Controls
There are many advantages of using scripts, applets, servlets and ActiveX controls.
They provide the following facilities:

• Multimedia Effects: They add special multimedia effects to web pages such as
animated graphics, scrolling text, calendars and advertisements etc.
• Interactive Capabilities: They provide interactive capabilities to web pages.
• Counters: They are used to create counter for websites. A counter is used to track the
number of visitors to a website.
• Image Map: A graphic that is used as a hyperlink is called image map. Different.
parts of the same image may link to different web pages.
• Processing Forms: Processing forms are used to collect data from visitors. The information entered in the forms is processed by scripts or applets.
• CGI Programs: CCI stands for Common Gateway Interface. It is a standard that defines how web server communicates. with outside sources. A program that manages this communication is known as CGI program or CGI script.

Web Hosting Technologies and Web publishing


Web hosting technologies:

Different web hosting technologies are aà follows:

• Windows Hosting: Windows hosting is the hosting of web services running on
Windows operating system. It should be used if the user wants to use ASP (Active Server Pages) as server scripting or a database like Microsoft Access or Microsoft SQL Server. Windows hosting is also the best to develop web site using Microsoft Front Page.
• Unix Hosting: Unix hosting is the hosting of web services running on Unix operating system. Unix was the first web server operating system. It is known for reliability and stability. It is also less expensive than Windows.
• Linux Hosting: Linux hosting is the hosting of web services running on the Linux operating system.

Web Publishing:

The process of developing and maintaining web pages is known as web publishing. A website must be stored on a web server to be accessible all over the world. Many tools are available to publish web pages on the Internet.

Web hosting


Web hosting is a service that provides space on the Internet for storing web pages. Different organizations provide the facility of web hosting. Some websites also provide this facility free of cost. A website must be hosted on a Web server to be accessible from all over the world.

Web Hosting Services:

A good web site hosting company will provide at least the following services:
• Technical support
• FTP access to update web site
• A number of email accounts
• Online control panel for managing web site
• A database management system, such as MySQL or MS SQL.
• Specialized server applications such as ColdFusion, SQL Server, or PHP if required.

Types of Web Hosting:
Different types of web hOsting are as follows:

1. Shared Hosting:
Shared hosting is a type of hosting in which a web site is hosted on a server with many other web sites. However, the web site is configured as a separate web site on the server with its own domain name etc. The benefit of shared hosting is that it is cost effective.

2. Dedicated Servers:
A dedicated server hosts one or more web sites of only one user. It gives more control
over the web site. It can also ensures that other web sites do not impact on the web site.
However, the dedicated servers are much more expensive than shared hosting. It should only
be used if the website receives very heavy traffic or the user requires extra security etc. The user can log in to a dedicated server like a personal computer.

3. Virtual Dedicated Servers:
Virtual dedicated servers are a low-cost alternative to dedicated servers. The web host
can put many virtual servers on each machine to reduce costs. It appears to be a dedicated server when the user logs in to a virtual server.

4. Managed Hosting:
A managed hosting means that the user has a dedicated server and the web site hosting provider manages the server for the user. Typically, the hosting provider is responsible for the hardware, operating system and virus protection etc. However, the user has total control over the machine and the web site content.

Browser settings and Privacy Concerns about Cookies

Browser Setting for Cookies:

The browser can be set to accept cookies as follows:
• The user can set the browser to accept cookies automatically.
• It can be set to prompt the user to accept a cookie.
• It can be set to disable the use of cookies altogether. However, the user may not be able to use many of e-commerce web sites if cookies are disabled.


Privacy Concerns about Cookies:

Webmasters obtain information about users IP addresses, browser type, Last pages visited using cookies. It allows Web server to recognize a user who has already visited the website from the same computer. It allows the compilation of user profiles and large amounts of data related to the interests of the user.
Advertisers and webmasters are currently using cookies to develop detailed profiles of users and their browsing habits. Each click on a particular type of page in a website is added to the profile. The information is primarily used for website design and placement of banner advertisements. However, this information can be sold for other commercial purpose that creates a concern to personal privacy.

Types and Uses of Cookie


Types of Cookies:
Cookies can be temporarily and persistent.

• Temporary cookie: Temporary cookie is also called session cookie. It is stored temporarily in browser’s memory and is deleted when the session ends or the browser is closed.

• Permanent cookie: Permanent cookie is also called persistent cookie. It is stored permanently on computer’s hard drive. If it is deleted, it will be recreated when the user visits the website again.

Uses of Cookies:

Cookies are used for different purposes such as follows:
• Most websites use them for personalization of user preferences. For example,  a news website may allow the user to customize the page to display the news of his interests, The website stores user preference in cookies.
Some websites also use cookies to store user’s passwords. The users do not need to enter the password again and again.
• Some website use cookies to track visits of users and web pages visited by the users.
• Online shopping sites generally use session cookies to keep the track of items in a
user’s shopping cart.
• Some website may use cookies to target advertisement. These sites store a user’s
interests and browsing habits in the cookie and display related ads on the pages.

What is a Cookie


Cookie:
A cookie is used to maintain information about a user state. Cookies can be used to store user preferences and user information that can be used across pages in  the website. A cookie is also known as web cookie, browser cookie and HTTP cookie.
A cookie is stored as text strings on the computer. A Web server sends a cookie and the browser stores it. The browser returns the cookie to the server when the page is refrenced again. The most common use of a cookie is to store a user ID. A cookie may contain the string such as ID=96352398.

Example:
The website www.amazon.com uses cookies. The user fills a form with name and address to order a book. Amazon assigns an ID, stores user’s information with that ID in its database on the server. It also sends the ID to user’s browser as a cookie. The browser stores ID on the hard disk The browser sends the ID back to the server when the user visits Amazon again, The server customizes the web page according to the user ID.

Multimedia on Web


Tech Beats
Blogging Tips


Multimedia on Web

Multimedia is an application that uses text with grphics, animation, audio, video and virtual reality. The use of multimedia makes websites more attractive and interesting for the, people. The websites with multimedia contents take more time to download. Multimedia consists of the following:

1. Graphics
Graphic or graphical image is the digital form of chart, photOgrpah or drawing. Many websites use different colorful graphics, logos and charts to present information in an attractive way. The use of graphics increases the size of web page.
Two commonly used graphic formats are JPEG and GIF. JPEG format compresses graphics and reduces its size. Compression reduces the size but also decreases the quality. GIF format also compresses images. This format is suitable for the images with a few distinct colors such as line drawings, borders etc. A new format PNG is an improve form of GIF format. BMP, PCX and TIFF formats are heavy in size and are not used on the Web normally. Many websites use thumbnails of images. Thumbnail is a small version of a larger graphics.

2. Animation
Animation is the display of motion by displaying a series of still images in a sequence. It makes websites more attractive and lively. Scrolling text is an example of animation. Animation easily captures the attention of the user. Animated GIF. is a popular type of animation. it is actually a set of different images combined into a single GIF file.

3. Audio
Audio includes music, speech and other sounds. Audio is stored as individual sound files on the Web. Different formats of audio files are MP3, way, WMA, MPEG, RealAudio and QuickTime. Audio files are also compressed to reduce size.
Some applications on the Web use streaming audio. Streaming, is a process of transferring data in a continuous and even flow. With streaming audio, the user can listen to the music as it is downloading. MP3, QuickTime, Windows Media Format and RealAudio are accepted standards for transmitting streaming audio data on the Internet.

4. Video
Video is a set of full-motion images played at various speeds. Many videos also contain audio as well. Many websites provide live telecast of matches and shows. The users can download the video files from websites and watch them on their computers. Video ifies are found in different formats and are normally compressed to reduce their size. Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) defines a popular video compression standard. The current standard is known as MPEG-4.
Streaming video allows the user to view video as it is downloading. Most commonly used streaming video standards are AVI (Audio Video Interleaved), QuickTime, Windows Media Format and RealVideo.

5. Virtual Reality.
Virtual reality is a technique used to simulate a real or imaginary environment that
appears in three-dimensional space. Virtual reality software create indefinite space and depth known as VR world. Jt can display a building with furniture and equipments. The user
can view the building on the computer by virtually moving the input device.
Virtual reality is commonly used in 3-D games. It is also used to create simulations of
scientific structures, products and buildings etc.

6. Plug-Ins
Plug-in is a program that extends the capabffity of a web browser. Web browsers can
display basic multimedia elements. Sometimes, they require plug-ins to display some files. Different plug-in programs are as follows:




What are web Directories

web Directories

Web directory is used to search general information on a broad topic or to explore
different areas of a broad topic. The directories are arranged by subject. They usually include
links to the top level of the website rather than to pages within the website. The user searches
by selecting a broad category and then narrows the search step by step. For example, a user
i start the search with category of Social Sciences. He can move to History, By Region,
Africa, Egypt, Ancient Egypt and then Pyramids. The results of different directories vary
widely as websites includes in each category are selected by the people instead of machines.
Some examples of web directories are as follows:

• www.ipl.org
• www.looksmart.com
• www.webbrain.com

what is Netiquette

Netiquette


Netiquette is an abbreviation of Internet etiquettes. it is the behavior expected from the users 
on the Internet. It includes different rules related to World Wide Web, 
email, message boards, chat rooms and instant messaging etc. 
Some netiquettes are as follows:

• Use short and concise messages with correct spelling and grammar.
• Use humorous word carefully as it may be misinterpreted.
• Use polite and sophisticated language.
• Do not send span mail to any one.
• Avoid the use of all capital letters.
• Use emoticons to expression emotions.
• Use abbreviations like AOA for Assalam-o-Alaikum
• Read frequently asked questions (FAQ) if available on a website or   newsgroup.
• Never think that the available material is perfect.
• Do not read private email of any person.

What is a Search Engine

Search Engines

Search Engines

Search engine is a website that provides the facility to find the required websites on a
particular topic. A user can search any topic on Internet using search engines. Internet
contains a lot of information. A large number of websites about different topics are available.
A user cannot remember all websites. He can search different websites using search engines.
Search engine contains the record of many websites. It searches the required websites and display them to the user. Search engines are very powerful tools for finding information.
Searching the Web

Different methods of searching the web are as follows:
1. Search using Boolean Logic
The Boolean operators are also used to search the required information from search
engines. All search engines do not provide the facility of using Boolean operators.
The Boolean operators are as follows:
AND operator is used to search on the basis of all words in the search string.such as “British AND Novels”. This search string will search for the websites ,that contain both words. The symbol + can also be used instead of AND.

OR operator is used to search on the basis of any word in the search string such as British OR Novels. This search string will search the websites that contain any of the two words. The symbol — can also be used instead of OR.

NOT operator is used to search on the basis of any word other than the search string
such as “New York NOT City”. This search string will search for the websites that contain the word “New York” but not “New York City”.

2. Search by Phrase:-
Keywords are used to search the required information from search engine. Keyword is a word or set of words that is related to the topic being searched. The keywrod is typed in double quotation if it consists of two or more words in the form of phrase. For example, the following phrases c be used to search information about Pakistani universities:
‘Pakistani thtiversities”
“Universities in Pakistan”

3. Search using Truncation
‘The truncation method is used to expand the seach to include a specified word root w different word endings. The first part of a keyword is given along with a symbol usually asterisk ‘ The following example will search Pakistan, Pakistani and Pákpattan etc

Types Of Websites


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Types of Websites
 Different types of websites are as follows:
1. Portal
Portal is a website that provides different types of Internet services such as:

  •  Search engine
  •  Sports and weather
  •  Reference tools
  •  Maps
  • Auctions
  •  News
  •  Free web publishing services
  • Stock quotes
  • Shopping malls
  •  Emails


Some portals contain information for general public and some provide information for specific group of people like laywers, doctors etc. A website for specific group of people with similar interests is called Web community. Some pupular portals are Yahoo, AltaVista, America Online, Excite, The Microsoft Network and Netscape. A type of portal is specially designed oft Web-enabled devices. it is known as wireless portal. Wireless portals provide all facilities to mobile users.
2. News
.
News website provides different types of news related to current affairs politics, sports, weather etc. They provide stories, articles and other material. Popular magazines and
newspapers provide the news on websites. Some examples of news websites are:
• www.geo.tv
• www.jang.com.pk

3. Informational
An informational website provides information with facts and figures. Governments provide information about different departments and policies for general public. Some examples of informational websites are as follows:
• www.pakistan.gov.pk
• www.most.gov.pk
• www.punjab.gov.pk

4. Business/Marketing
A business/marketing webiste provides material to promote its products and services.
Today, most of business companies have webistes. The customers can view the products and interact with the company. Many companies provide the facilities of online shopping using the Internet. Some examples of business/marketing websites are as follows:
www.dell.com
www.ibm.com

5. Educational
Educational webistes provide educational material related to teaching and learning. Many websites provide online training classes where people can learn different skills.
Colleges and universities provide information about classes, admissions etc. on websites.
Educational institutes also display results and course material on websites. Some examples of
educational websites are as follows:
• www.pu.edu.pk
• www.uaf.edu.pk

6. Entertainment
Entertainment websites provide material for recreation and enjoyment. These webistes provide music, videos, sports, games and chats etc. Many websites also provides online shows, live sports etc. Some examples of entertainment websites are as follows:
• www.lollywood.com
• www.pakistanmusic.com

7. Advocacy
Advocacy websites provide material to convince people of a cause, opinion or idea. Some websites represents the viewpoint of a particular comninity or group. Some intend to
create awareness in the people about a particular cause.

8. Personal
Personal websites contain material of an individual or a family. People publish
personal websites to share their views with others, to seek job or just for fun.

Roles In Website Development


Roles in WebSite Development Team

• Server Administrators: They take care of the technical issues and are responsible for .
running and maintaining the Web server. They also generate statisticalreports on the users of a website.

• HTML Coders: They write HTML code for website pa and troubleshoot the site.

• Designers: They are thegraphic artists responsible for the appearance of the website.

• Writers and Information Designers:Wnters prepare content for online display such as hypertext information and navigation paths. They work closely with designers to create page templates.

• Software Programmers: They write the programs for interactive website using different tools such as Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts, Java scripts. They also develop back end applications to interface with databases.

• Database Administrators: They maintain the databases and ensure data accessibility and security.

• Marketers: They generate contents and work to make the website more popular.

Monday, 2 July 2012

WEB BROWSER

Web Browser:-

A web browser is a software that is used to view web pages. It acts as an interface between user and the internet. It can understand HTML. It can display text and graphics.Browsers are also known as web clients or Universal clients. Some popular web browsers are:
  • Mozilla Firefox
  • Internet Explorer
  • Google Chrome
  • Opera
  • Safari

Functions of Web Browsers:-

  • Web Browsing:It is the most important Function of Web Browser. The user can browse different websites using web browser and see contents of website. The  web browsers provide different buttons to browse easily such as back,forward,stop and refresh etc.
  • Tabbed Browsing: Tabbed browsing allows the user to open multiple pages in the same browser window. Each webpage is loaded in separate tab.The user can move b/w different web pages more easily.
  • Search Box:The web browsers provide a built in search box. The user can designate The preferred default search engine for search.
  • Favorites:A web browser provides the facility to store favorite website address in a list. The user can go to any web page in the list by clicking on it. The user does not need to remember the addresses of favorite websites.
  • Mailing:A web browser also provides the facility to read or send e-mail. The user can also open up newsgroups etc.
  • Auto Complete: A web browser stores the addresses of all websites that have been visited by the user. Auto complete Feature displays complete addresses of a website as the user starts typing the address in address bar. 

Benefits Of Internet For Business Organizations

1. Marketing and Advertising:-
        A business organization can use the internet to market and advertise products all over the world. The user of popular websites is an effective way of introducing a product to the costumers.
2. Providing Customer Services:-
        A business organization can interact with customers using the internet. The businessman can discuss different issues about their products. He can also deal with their complaints and provide better and different services to them.
3. Online Trading:-
       Online trading is a process of conducting business using the internet. a business organization can do all trading activities electronically. The products can be displayed on the website where the costumers can buy these products. The costumers can also pay by credit card. It is an easier and quicker way of trading.
4. Wider Customers Base:-
        Organizations at distant places can interact with customers easily. Any person from any part of the world can be their customer. It provides a wider customers base for any business organization.
5. Competitive Advantage:-
         Companies using the internet in business are more competitive because they can offer their products and services to more customers well in time.

Benefits of Internet for Students

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1. Online Education:-
         Many colleges and universities in the world provide the facility to get education using internet. The students can earn Degrees and Diplomas from home using Internet.

2. Downloading Software:-
          The students can download many educational softwares from internet. These softwares can help The students to improve their knowledge.

3. Online Results:-
         Internet provides the facility to display results of students on websites. Many colleges and Universities provide online results. The students can view results from any part of the world.

4. Research:-
          Internet provides many facilities for research work. It contains detailed information on different topics. The research students can find the required information on internet. They can also interact with different researchers in the world to share Knowledge and get guidance.

5. Online Encyclopedia:-
           Online Encyclopedias are available on the internet. The students can find detailed Information on any topic in the World.
         
         

Disadvantages of internet

1. HACKING:-
          Hacking is one of the most important disadvantages of internet. The hackers access the data stored on computers across internet. They can use this data illegally or even destroy it.
2. IMMORALITY:-
          Internet contains large number of immoral websites. These websites contains such type of content which is against the moral values of our society. These websites are damaging the character of young people.
3. Security Problems:-
           Internet has created many security problems. Important data can be hacked on internet. Hackers also damage different websites and delete their contents. They also retrieve Critical data of different organizations and governments.
4. Viruses:-
            Internet is most important source of spreading computer viruses now a days. People spread virus using internet and Emails. Many websites also contain Different Viruses that are copied to the computers when the users visit the websites.
5. Wastage Of Time:-
           Many people use internet without any positive purpose. The young people waste their time in chatting. It affects their performance and makes them inefficient.
6. Cyber Crime:-
           Internet is a source of cyber-crimes. People use internet for negative activities. They Hacks credit card numbers of people and use them for shopping. Some people use internet to spread illegal and immoral material. Many Governments are introducing laws to stop cyber crimes. 

Advantages of Internet


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1. INFORMATION SEARCH:-
        Internet contains information on all types of topics . People can search information on any topic.
Search engines are used to search information on internet.
2. EMAIL:-
         Email is an inexpensive and fast way of communication. It is used to send messages, pictures
and files from one part of world to another.
3. E-COMMERCE:-
         E-COMMERCE means to carry out financial and business dealings using internet.
A person can deal with his costumers throughout the world.
4. ONLINE RESULTS:-
         Internet provides the facility to display results of students on websites. Many colleges and
Universities provide online results . The students can view results from any part of the world.
6. FAST COMMUNICATION:-
         Internet is a fast way of communication around the world.The people can communicate with
 one another in less time from any part of the world.
7. ENTERTAINMENT:-
         Internet provides a lot of entertainment to the people. The users can play online games, listen
 songs watch movies and live matches etc. Many websites provide entertainment material.
 People can also download entertainment stuff.
8. ONLINE EDUCATION:-
         The process of getting education through internet is called online education. Many websites
 Provide s tutorials and lectures on different subjects and topics. Some websites allow the user
 download these tutorials. It is the fast and cheaper way of educating a large number of people.
9. ADVERTISEMENT:-
         Many commercial products advertise their products on internet. This way of advertising is
 becoming very popular now a days. Millions of people are connected to the advertising business.

     

What is meant by ISP and SMTP

ISP

ISP stands for Internet Service Provider.ISP provides a link between the individual
user's computer and internet.The most common type of physical connection used for this service
is dial up modem that operates over normal telephone lines.
An ISP is a company, which provides you access to the internet and provides facilities 
of WWW,Email and FTP etc. Different ISPs in Pakistan are Comsat,Brain Net and WOL etc.

SMTP

SMTP stands for  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. It is one of the most popular network 
service is electronic mail. It supports electronic mail on the internet. It is a system for sending 
messages to other computers users based on email addresses.
SMTP provides the facilities for email exchange between users on same or different computers.
it also supports:
  • sending a single message to one or more recipients .
  • sending messages that include text, voice,video or graphics.
  • sending messages to users outside the network.
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Monday, 25 June 2012

What Is "Touch Pad" and "Track Ball"

Touch pad:-

Touch Pad Is a small,Flat surface over which the user moves his finger.
The movement of finger controls the cursor on the monitor screen.It is also 
known as Track pad.
A Touch pad also contains one or more buttons near it.These buttons 
work like mouse buttons.Touch pads are commonly used in notebook 
computers or laptop computers.
The disadvantage of Touch pad is that it is very sensitive and require
very much care while using it.

Track Ball:-

A Track ball can be used as An alternative to a mouse.This device has 
buttons similar to those on mouse.It has large rotating ball on its top.
The body of track ball is not moved. The ball is rolled with finger. 
The position of the cursor on the screen is controlled by rotating the ball.

     An advantage of track ball is that  it takes less space to move than mouse.
 Track ball is often included in Laptop computers.It can be used as separate 
input device with standard desktop computers.

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Friday, 22 June 2012

What Is Conference Call

What Is Conference Call?

Conference Calling Is The method of calling to more than one person at a time
by using internet.

Online Conference call providers:-

There are many online conference call providers on internet which are providing
online conference calling service but I will name here Skype which is the best
conference call provider(according to my personal experience) 
Just sign up to skype for free and enjoy online video conference calling.



Regards  

Friday, 25 May 2012

E-MAIL AND ITS ADVANTAGES


Email:-


Email stands for Electronic Mail. Email is the exchange of messages and files through Internet. Message can be in the form of graphics, sounds, video clips or simple text. it is a fast way of sending messages anywhere in the world in a very short time.
The sender and receiver may be sitting in the same building or anywhere in the world.
One email message can be sent to many people. Email facility is provided by many Internet
Service providers or specialized websites. Yahoo, Hotmail and Gmail are some poptilar.
examples of email providing websites.


Advantages and Uses of Email:-


Some advantages of email are as follows:
• It is very fast and timely.
• it is very cheap and inexpensive.
• People can send and receive message anywhere in the world.
• People can share information.
• It is possible to send and receive email through mobile phone.
• Email gives us the facility to send pictures, sounds and videos
• Email message does not disturb the recipient. It is stored on a server and can be read at any time.

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Thursday, 24 May 2012

Services Of Internet


Internet provides various facilities and uses for users. Some facilities are:


1. World Wide Web (WWW):-

www is a collection of millions of websites. A websites contains different web pages containing information. www organizes this information in such a way that users can easily search and access the required information.

2. E-mail:-

Email stands for Electronic Mail. Email is the exchange of messeges and files using Internet. Message can be in the form of graphics, sounds, video clips or simple text. It is a fast way of sending messages anywhere in the world in a very short time.

3.Telnet:-

TELNET is a program that is used to connecting a remote computer on Internet. A computer can act like a terminal directly linked to the computer. It allows a user to logon to a remote computer. The user can logon to the computer and use it as if he connected to the computer directly.
4. File Transfer Protocol:-
File Transfer Protocol is used to transfer files over the Internet. Audio, video, graphics and data files can be uploaded or downloaded using this protocol.
The process of transferring a file from remote computer to local computer is called downloading. The process of transferring a file from a local computer to remote computer is called uploading. Different software are available to use this protocol fo transferring files on the Internet. CuteFTP and WS_FTP are examples of FTP software.

5. Gopher:-

Gopher is a menu-based system for exploring the Internet and its resources. It provides the facilities of search and file retrieval on the Internet It organizes resources in such a way that finding information becomes easier on the internet.

6. Chat Groups:-

Chatting is a process of exchanging views on the Internet by typing text messages. Chat group is a group of users with similar interest. Many users join chat groups. The users can interact with one another in real-time. It means that they are online at the same time.

7. Intranet:-

Intranet is a private and secure business network. It uses Internet technology to provide information to the employees of the organization. The information can be protected from unauthorized users. It is designed to meet the internal needs for sharing information within a single organization or company

8.Extranet:-

Extranet is a collection of two or more intranets. It can be accessed by authorized users from outside the organization. Different organizations can use extranet to share the information of their intranets. An organization can apply security measures to provide limited access to the employees of other organization using the extranet.

Difference Between Intranet and Extranet:-


Intranet :-

1. Intranet contains the information of one organization.
2. Intranet is used to provide information to the employees.

Extranet :-

1. Extranet may have the information of two or more organizations.
2. Extranet is used to share information with other organizations.





Internet And Its History


Internet:-

Internet is a huge collection of computers all over the world that are all connected to one another. It is a global network of computers. These computers are connected through different telecommunications links like:

• Phone lines
• Fiber optics lines
• Satellites and wireless connections

Internet is used to find inf stored on the computers called hosts or servers. These computers use a common protocol called TCP/IP for communication. TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Proto/Internet Protocol. Each computer connected to the Internet can act as host. A host c provides information to the people.
People can find informatfon about books, magazines, encyclopedia and other types of material on the Internet. -Th can get expert opinions on any topic. They can alsO communicate with world com’1 on different subjects. The Internet has made this world a global village.

History Of Internet:-

The work on Internet was started in 1960s during the cold war of Russia and America. America wanted to communicate with its Armed Forces. A network of four computers was developed in the beginning.
The project was handed over to DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Project Agency). DARPA started connecting computers at different universities and defense companies
Different universities and research organizations also started the development of their own networks to share infó and data with other people. After a few years, all networks of universities and research organizations were connected by DARPA with each other to make the world’s biggest network.This network is know known as Internet.
In 1989, all previous networks were replaced by NSFNET of National Science Foundation. The Internet facility was now available to common people.



Different access methods used by Ethernet to access a network


Different access methods used by Ethernet to access a network are as follows:

1. CSMA/CD:-

It is a local area access method. It resolves the contention between two or more stations by collision detection. If two sta) transmit data at the same time, they both stop and generate a signal that a collisionJ Each station waits for a specified time and then retransmits. Each stations waits for random period of time to avoid another collision.

2. CSMA/CS:-

In this method, a node listens to the bus for a specified time before transmitting. It waits until the node has completed the transmission.

3. CSMA/CR:-

It allows multiple devices to talk at the same time. A protocol is used to determine the priority of a device.

various lines for communication over telephone network


Different lines for communication over telephone network are as follows:

1.ISDN:-

ISDN stands for Integrated Services/digital Network. It is a set of standards for digital transmission of data over standard copper telephone lines. One telephone line can carry three or more signals at one time using the same line. ISDN requires ISDN modem at both sides. ISDN modem is different from dial-up modem.

2. DSL:-

DSL stands for digital subscriber line. It provides high-speed data transmission over existing telephone lines. The existing telephone lines are analog. That is why, DSL modem is required to connect to DSL. DSL is easier to install than ISDN and is also faster.

WHAT IS TCP IP


What Is TCP/IP?

TCP I IF stands for transmission control protocol I Internet protocol. It is the protocol used by every computer on Internet. A protocol is a set of rules and procedures that defines how computer receive and transmit data over the network.


• TCP/IP ensures reliable connection between different computers that communicate over Internet. It is used to identify every computer on the Internet separately.
TCP/IP software is different for different computers but provides same interface to the network. Two different types of computers can communicate with each other using this protocol. For example, a personal computer can exchange data with mainframe computer over the Internet by using TCP/IP.

Wednesday, 23 May 2012

Local Area Network Protocols


Network Protocol:-

Network Protocol or communication protocol is a set of rules for exchanging information between computers on a network.
Types of LAN Protocols:-
Different LAN protocols are as follows:

1. Ethernet

Ethernet is the most commonly used LAN protocol. It uses a high-speed network cable and bus topology. It is inexpensive and easy to install and. manage. All computers inEthemet tIse same cable to send and receive data. They must follpw same rules for communication. If- two or more computers transmit data at same time, the messages can be lost. A computer checks if the cable is in use before transmitting data. The computer waits if the cable is being used. It starts transmitting data when the cable is free. This process is also called CSMA/C$ (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection).

2. Token Ring

Token ring is also a LAN technology. It allows network devices to access the network by passmg a special signal called token Token is like a ticket A device can transmit data over the network only if it has a token. Only one token is available in one netwOrk is why no collision can occur. But the data transmission rate is slow. When a computer wants to send a message, it:
1. Gets the token
2. Puts the data in the token
3. Adds the address of receiving computer
Token ring is based on ring topology but can also be used in star topology. The token passes from computer to computer. The computer whose address matches with the address stored in the token gets the data. It then returns the message to the sending computer to indicate that the data has been received.

3. ARCnet


ARCnet stands for Attached Resource Computer Network. It is a LAN protocol. It was introduced in 1977. It uses twisted-pair, coaxial cable and fiber-optic media. ARCnet uses star, bus or combination of these topologies.
The original ARCnet protocol was very slow. It.supported transmission rates of 2.5 Mbps. It became popular because it was inexpensive and reliable. It isalso easy to setup and expand. Fast ARCnet increased the transmission rate to 100 Mbitspersecond.


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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LAN AND WAN


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LAN AND WAN:


LAN:-

1. LAN is used to connect computers at
one place.
2. LAN covers limited area.
3. Data transfer speed is very fast in LAN. Its speed is normally form 0.1 to 100 Mbps.
4. LAN is less costly.
5. LAN is usually connected through
wires.
6. The connection in a LAN is permanent
using wires.
7. LAN is used to share files and
hardware like printers, modem.
8. LAN has less possibility of data
transmission error.
9. In LAN, problems normally occur due
to cable disturbance by end user.


WAN:-

1. WAN is used to connect computers
anywhere in world.
2. WAN can cover more distance.
3. Data transfer speed is slow in WAN. Transmission rates are typically 56kbps to 45Mbps.
4. WAN is expensive.
5. WAN is usually connected through
telephone lines.
6. The connection in WAN is not
permanent.
7. WAN is used to share only data and
information i.e. email & file.
8. WAN has higher possibility of data
transmission error.
9. In WAN, problem normally occurs due to communication problems in medium.


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NETWORK TYPES OF COMPUTERS


LAN (Local Area Network):
Uses and Advantages of LAN:-
MAN (Metropolitan-Area Network): 
WAN (wide area network):
LAN is the most common type of network. LAN stands for Local Area Network. It covers a small area. Most LANs are used to connect computers in a single building, campus, office or room etc. Hundreds or thousands of computers may be connected through LAN. There are marty types of LANs. Ethernet is the most common for PCs.
The above figure shows a LAN. All computers are connected to a central node in star topology. The central node is a special device called a network hub. All links are made up of UTP cables. The maximum recommended length of a UTP connection in LAN is 100 meters. No computer should be more than 100 meters away from hub.
All computers in LAN can communicate with each other at a high speed. The speed of communications between any two devices on an Ethernet LAN can be 2 to 1000 millions bits per second (Mbps). LAN can transmit data in a limited distance.

• One copy of a software can be shared by all users in a LAN
• System resources such as printers can be shared between several people in network.
• It is easy to manage the data stored on a centralized computer in the network.
• The data is more secure from being copied or destroyed.
• Data can be shared by all users using the network.


A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a communications network that covers a geographical area of the size of a city. A MAN typically include one or more LANs but cover a small geographical area than WAN. A MAN often acts as a high-speed network. Mobile phones systems often use MAN.




WAN stands for wide area network. It refers to a network that covers a large area. WAN connects computers in different cities and countries. Computers in WAN are often connected through telephone lines. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. WAN can reach the parts of the world that is not possible with LANs.
The mainframe and- minicomputers used in WAN are designed to be accessed by terminals. A personal computer must appear as a terminal to communicate with large computers in WAN. Tetminai emulation software is usedlo allow a personal computer to appearas In this-way the personal computer can connect to a large computer.
The larger computer is known as host computer. A personal computer attached to host computer can upload and download data. The transfer of data from personal computer to host computer is known as uploading. The transfer of data from host computer to personal computer is known as downloading. File transfer soffware is used to do upload and download data.
Transmission rate of WAN is typically 56kbps to 45Mbps. WAN is not as fast as LAN.
It requires long cable distances and there is a possibility of error in data transmission.




Tuesday, 22 May 2012

Different Networks Models.


There are two models of computer networks. These are as follows:


  • Client-Server Model.
  • Peer-to-Peer Model.

1. Client-Server Model (Dedicated Server Network):

In client-server model, one or more computers work as servers nd other computers work as clients. The server computer controls the whole network. It is used to store data and programs to be shared among different computers in the network. It may also share a printer attached with it. Server is more powerful computer than other computers in the network. It performs most of the processing in this network model.
The client computer requests a service from the server computer. The server computer provides the requested service to the client computer.
Some servers are called dedicated servers. A dedicated server is used to perform a specific task. For example, file server is used to store and manage files. A print server is used to manage printers and printing tasks. Similarly, network server manages network resources.


Advantages:-

Some important advantages of client-server model are as follows:
• It reduces the volume of data traffic on the network.
• It also provides faster responses to the clients.
• It can use less powerful computers as clients because most of the-processing is done by the server computer.

Disadvantages:-

• It is expensive model because server computers are costly.
• The operations stop all over the network when server goes down.

2. Peer-to-Peer Model:

All computers in peer-to-peer model have same status. There is no server computer to control other computers Each computer in this network can have access to the devices and files on the other computers Each computer independently store its own software and information.

Advantages:-

Some important advantages of peer-to-peer model are as follows:
• It is easy to setup:
• It is easy to maintain.
• It does not require expensive server computer.
•. It is suitable for sinalloffice of ten or less computers.

Disadvantage:-

The main disadvantage of this model are as follows:
• Heavy use can slow down the network speed:
• It also provides less security of data because files are stored at different locations in the network.



Hybrid Model:-

Hybrid model is a combination of client/server model and peer-to-peer model. Many networks use a mixture of both network models. This model can provide the advantages of both models.




TYPES OF COMPUTERS IN A NETWORK


Terminal Computer:-

Every computer that is part of a computer network is called a terminal or node. The users using different terminal computers can share information and send or receive data from one terminal to another.

Server Computer:-

A server computer in a computer network is used as a central computer. It contros other computers in the network. Server computer is more powerful than terminals.

Sunday, 20 May 2012

BASIC COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEM

BASIC COMPONENTS:

There are four basic components of a computer system which are explained below.
  1. Input Devices
  2. Processing Devices
  3. Output Devices
  4. Storage devices
  • INPUT  DEVICES:

The data that is given to computer system is called input. Input devices are used to input data and instructions to a computer. These devices send  this data to processing unit.most commonly used input devices are mouse and keyboard.
  • PROCESSING  DEVICES:
The processor is used to process data.it is also called central processing unit(CPU). It is the Brain of the Computer. It consists of electronic circuits. CPU interprets and executes program instruction. All computers must have a central processing unit.
Main memory is used to store the input data before processing. It also stores processed data after processing until the data is sent to the output device. The main memory is closely connected to CPU but is separate from it.
  • OUTPUT  DEVICES:
The data processed into useful information is called output. Output devices are used to display the result of processing. The most common output devices are monitor and printer.
  • STORAGE  DEVICES:
Storage usually refers to secondary storage. The main memory stores data and programs temporarily . The secondary storage is required to store data,information and programs permanently. The most common storage floppy disk,hard disk drive and CD-ROM etc......